MIF’s and RLF’s- Biological clock

Although the existence of a temperature and light independent biological clock in nature has been known for centuries- starting probably from the observation of French scientist Jean-Jacques d’Ortous de Mairan in 1729 (he noted that 24-hour patterns in the movement of the leaves of the plant Mimosa pudica continued even when the plants were kept in constant darkness), only in 20th century scientists have got remarkable progress in this area.

Studies in biochemistry and physiology after world war II confirmed existence of near daily (circadian), synodic-monthly, seasonal and annual biological rhythms (Siffre 1964, Wever, 1979, Litynska, 1984).

Findings of biologists have raised the question- if here is biological clock, what is the Zeitgeber (time-giver) for it?

Hypothesis, that biological clock is environmentally driven, first (probably) has published Brown (1983) after a cycle of classical papers.

At the same time investigators of influence of weak electromagnetism/magnetic field to living systems sometimes are not able to reproduce their data (see for example Jelinek et al). Rare paper of Hiwaki (1998) about action of 50 Hz magnetic field to biological clock leaves more questions, than answers.

Wikipedia is fast to tell us, that “Biological clock may refer to: Circadian rhythm, living organisms adaptations to solar related rhythms.

In fact, the lenght of our natural earthday is POSITION OF MOON-DEPENDENT phenomenon- ca. 24.8 hours- a fundamental fact in biology (Endres and Schad, 2002 ) with no physical explanation.

Application of this fact- solunar theory (Knight, 1972) tells us, that there are two major “good” periods of activity, when the Moon is in maximum height or low during earthday- and two minimum “good” periods, when Moon is rising or setting. That periods is important for fishing, hunting and everyday’s life.

The analysis of the temperature/light independent biological clock allows one to conclude that this is primary, but light-dependent biological clock- secondary phenomenon. Thus, for example, Cain and coworkers found out (in 2007), that exercises during different times of day do not alter internal biological clock in humans.

Studies of Stevens (2009 and related papers) clearly show, that with introducing of electrical lighting there can be a conflict between artificial light and the endogenous biological clock.

Recent investigations of the anthrophosophical school confirm the importance of lunar rhythms for agriculture (Kolisko and Kolisko, 1939).  At the same time, experiments of growing wheat in total darkness and controllable temperature obviously reveal hidden factors of fertility, which are coming from the Sun.  During annual cycle  the influences from Sun add an increment to lunar cycles- depending of height of Suns’ path  over the equator.

Next cue for interdependence of solar and lunar rhythms comes from G.Lakhovsky (cited after Kolisko and Kolisko, 1939), who investigated speed of sterilising water with metallic silver, depending on lunar phase. It turned out, that in full Moon sterilisation of water becomes slower and slower, during the time from the winter to the summer. Finally, in a full Moon near to summer solstice metallic silver was not able to sterilise water at all – the growth of microorganisms intensified.

In a chronobiologically correct experiment Farbridge and Leatherland discovered action of the Sun in equinoctial time to lunar rhythms of fish fries (1987a, 1987b).

Data of medicinal climatology very seldom are with axis of symmetry winter solstice-summer solstice. In many cases months around equinoctial time appear as completely different from any other time of year. Sometimes an axis of symmetry February/August has been detected (for example in Efird and Nielsen, 2008).

Finally, Nakajima and coworkers found, that biological clock can persist even in a system without a DNA (2005).

In our opinion, we can explain the existence and action of the temperature/light independent biological clock as changes in water clustering (and other bonds?), which is caused by MIF’s and RLF’ from Earth, which interact with MIF’s and RLF’s of the Sun and the Moon. Thus lunar influence can be viewed as a modulation of the Earth’s MIF, but solar influence- as a modulation of the Earth’s MIF and RLF.  For estimates of mentioned fields’ strenght  during annual cycle- please see page: MIF and RLF- Wheel of the year.

Latest findings in neurology (Moorman and Shorr, 2008) can justify our viewpoint.

Latest nuances in physico-chemical conception of biological clock: it turned out, that thiol oxidation can be involved in cell signalling (Cross and Templeton, 2004).  Thus we can understand, why annual changes in “gravitational field” affect speed of oxidation of unithiol (Gorshkov et al, 2000, Troshichev et al, 2004).

Failed space experiment with chickens, which did not hatch out from eggs in a spaceship, can be explained  by disruption of their biological clock. 

For question about woman’s periods in space someone got such a superficial answer from NASA: “So far there have been no studies done on how microgravity affects the human menstrual cycle”…

For the connection of biological clock and the origin of life- please see page MIF’s and RLF’s- Origin of life on Earth.

References :

Brown F., Jr. The biological clock phenomenon: Exogenous timing hypothesis. Journal of Interdisiplinary Cycle Research 14, 137-162, 1983.

Cain S et al. Exercise Distributed across Day and Night Does Not Alter Circadian Period in Humans. J.Biol.Rhythms  22, 534-541, 2007.

Cross J., Templeton D. Thiol oxidation of cell signaling proteins: controlling an apoptotic equilibrium. J.Cell. Biochem. 93, 104-111, 2004.

Efird J., Nielsen S. A method to model season of birth as surrogate environmental risk factor for disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 5, 49-53, 2008. 

Endres K.-P., Schad W.  Moon rhythms in nature. Edinburgh: Floris Books. 2002.

Farbridge K., Leatherland J.  Lunar cycles of Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus Kisutch. I. Growth and feeding. J.exp.Biol. 129, 165-178,  1987a.

Farbridge K, Leatherland J.  Lunar cycles of Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus Kisutch. II Scale amino acid uptake, nucleic acids, metabolic reserves and plasma thyroid hormones. J.exp. Biol. 129, 179-189, 1987b. 

Gorshkov E. et al. [Gravitational cause of fluctuations of the rate of oxidation of unithiol by nitrite ion]. Biofizika 45, 631-635, 2000.

Hiwaki O. Influence of 50 Hz magnetic fields on circadian rhythm of the suprachiasmatic nucleus activity. Internet.

Jelinek R. et al Absence of geomagnetic field does not influence the chick embryo
development
. Internet.

Knight J. Moon up- Moon down: story of the solunar theory. Solunar sales Co, 1972.

Kolisko L.,  Kolisko E. Agriculture for tomorrow. Part I. Kolisko archive. 1939.

Litynska A. Seasonal changes in the circadian activity rhythm of light-dark (LD) and completely dark (DD) regimen in the mouse submandibular gland in the presence of light-dark (LD) and completely dark (DD) regimen. Physiol Bohemoslov. 33, 447-56, 1984.

Moorman S., Shorr A. The primary cilium as a gravitational force transducer and a regulator of transcriptional noise. Dev Dyn. 237, 1955-1959, 2008.
Nakajima M. et al. Reconstitution of circadian oscillation of cyanobacterial KaiC phosphorylation in vitro. Science 308, 414–415, 2005.

Siffre M. Beyond Time. McGraw-Hill, 1964.

Stevens R. Working against our endogenous circadian clock: breast cancer and electric lighting in the modern world. Mutat. Res. 679, 6-8, 2009.

Troshichev O. et al. Variations of the gravitational field as a motive power for rhytmics of biochemical processes. Adv.Space Res. 34, 1619-1624, 2004.

Wever R. Circadian system of man: results of experiments under temporal isolation. Springer Verlag, 1979.

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